Introduction: Currently, video cystourethroscopy is the standard in endoscopic evaluation of bladder lesions. However, instruments, equipment and machines for video cystourethroscopy are expensive and not readily available in some hospitals. An inexpensive and readily available alternative is to use any Android, Apple or Windows smartphone during the video cystourethroscopic evaluation of bladder lesions.
Methods: Current models of Android smartphones with high resolution cameras were attached to rigid cystourethroscopes. These smartphones were carefully fitted to telescope of rigid cystourethroscope during video cystourethroscopy. Careful alignment of the camera lens of smartphone with eyepiece of telescope was necessary. Endoscopic bladder images were viewed from screen of smartphones. These bladder images were also simultaneously viewed on an inexpensive ordinary LCD monitor attached to the compatible smartphone. Smartphone models with the “screen mirroring” function were also used to view bladder images wirelessly with compatible LCD monitors. Endoscopic bladder images were photographed directly from the cystourethroscope using the smartphone or indirectly from the LCD monitor.
Results: The Android smartphone models used were: Android Galaxy S4 zoom, Android Galaxy S3 or Android Xperia Z1. Each smartphone was attached to a standard rigid cystourethroscope. Endoscopic images of bladder lesions viewed on the screen of the smartphone can be focused or zoomed in for desired size, when the camera lens of the smartphone was carefully aligned to telescope of the cystourethroscope. These endoscopic images that were viewed on the screen of smartphone were acceptable for endoscopic evaluation of bladder lesions in video cystourethroscopy. Photographs of endoscopic images of bladder lesions, directly from the smartphone or indirectly from LCD monitor, were also taken.
Conclusions: It is feasible to evaluate bladder lesions using any smartphone in video cystourethroscopy. Endoscopic bladder images viewed from the screen of smartphone or in the LCD monitor, as well as photographs taken by the smartphone, were also acceptable in the endoscopic evaluation of bladder lesions.